Ace: When a player hits the ball directly from the tee into the hole with one stroke. Also called a hole in one.
Aerosol: A player who rarely hits the ball in a consistent line. One who sprays the ball.
Aggregate: Refers to a score made over more than one round of play, or by two or more players playing as partners.
Aiming: The act of aligning the clubface to the target.
Alignment: The position of the body in relation to the initial target.
Albatross: A hole played three strokes under par. Also called a double eagle.
Angle of Approach (or Attack): A term that describes the relative angle which the clubhead approaches the ball at impact which, in turn, helps determine the distance and trajectory which the ball travels.
Apron: The grass surface on the perimeter of the green that separates it from the surrounding fairway or rough. Also known as frog-hair, or fringe.
Approach: A shot hit towards the green or towards the hole.
Austin: Any ball that lands off of the green yet still on an imaginary line passing through the flag-stick. The ball can be any distance off of the green, out to infinity, as long as it is still located on the imaginary line. Thus a player can be pin high 50 yards wide right and still claim an Austin.
Away: Describing the golfer whose ball is farthest from the hole. The player who is away should always play first.
Axis: Generally refers to a straight line (the spine) that the upper body rotates around in the course of the golf swing.
Backswing: The motion that involves the club and every element of the body in taking the club away from the ball and setting it in position at the top of the backswing from which the club can be delivered to the ball at impact.
Backspin: The rotational movement or spin of the ball produced by contact with the clubface. The greater the backspin, the higher the ball will fly and the more it will spin, and therefore stop or even spin backwards on impact with the turf.
Balance: The proper distribution of weight both at address and throughout the swing.
Balata: A rubber-like substance used as a cover material for golf balls. Pure balata is rarely, if ever, used today. Instead, manufacturers use blends or synthetic material. Many players prefer balata or balata-like covers because it provides a softer feel. And can provide increased spin.
Baseball Grip: A grip in which all ten fingers are placed on the grip of the club.
Birdie: A score of one under par on a hole.
Bladed Shot: Often referred to as a "skulled" shot, it occurs when the top half of the ball is struck with the bottom portion of an iron, resulting a low-running shot.
Block: A swing in which the rotation of the forearms is delayed or prevented throughout the hitting area, generally producing a shot that flies to the right of the target.
Bobbing: The act of raising and lowering (or lowering and raising) the swing center in the course of the swing.
Bogey: A score of one over par on a hole.
Borrow: The amount of break a player allows for when hitting a breaking putt.
Bowed: The position of the wrists at the top of the backswing in which the top wrist is bent slightly inward.
Break: The amount a putt will curve to the side because of the slope, grain and wind that affect the movement of the ball.
Bump and Run: A pitch shot around the green in which the player hits the ball into a slope to deaden its speed before settling on the green and rolling towards the hole.
Bunker: A hollow comprised of sand or grass or both that exists as an obstacle and, in some cases, a hazard.
Caddie: A person hired to carry clubs and provide other assistance.
Cambered: Sole A rounding of the sole of the club to reduce drag. A four-way cambered sole is one that is rounded at every edge of a wood.
Carry: The distance a ball will fly in the air, usually to carry a hazard or safely reach a target.
Carryover: When a hole is tied in a match and the bet is carried over to the next hole.
Casting: An uncocking of the wrists prematurely on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power and control. Also known as "hitting from the top."
Cavity-back: A type of iron in which a portion of the back of the clubhead is hollowed out and the weight distributed around the outside edges of the clubhead.
Center of Gravity: That point in the human body, in the pelvic area, where the body's weight and mass are equally balanced.
Centrifugal Force: The action in a rotating body that tends to move mass away from the center. It is the force you feel in the downswing that pulls the clubhead outward and downward, extending the arms and encouraging to take a circular path.
Center of Rotation: The axis or swing center that the body winds and unwinds around during the swing.
Chicken Wing: A swing flaw in which the lead elbow bends at an angle pointed away from the body, usually resulting in a blocked or pushed shot.
Chip and Run: A low-running shot played around the greens where the ball spends more time on the ground than in the air.
Choke: A derogatory term describing poor play that results from nervousness.
Choke Down: The act of gripping down on the shaft, which is generally believed to provide greater control.
Chunk: A poor shot caused by hitting the turf well behind the ball, resulting in a fat shot.
Cleek: A fairway wood with the approximate loft of a 4-wood that produces high shots that land softly.
Closed Clubface: The position formed when the toe of the club is closer to the ball that the heel, either at address or impact, which causes the clubface to point to the left of the target line.
Closed Clubface: (swing) A position during the swing in which the clubface is angled to the left of the target line or swing plane, generally resulting in shots hit to the left of the target.
Closed Grip: Generally referred to as a strong grip because both hands are turned away from the target.
Closed Stance: A description of a stance when the rear foot is pulled back away from the target line.
Closed-to-Open: A swing in which the clubhead is closed on the backswing but then manipulated into an open position on the downswing.
Cocked Wrists: A description of the hinging motion of the wrists during the backswing in which the hands are turned clockwise. Ideally, the wrists are fully cocked at the beginning of the downswing.
Coefficient of Restitution: The relationship of the clubhead speed at impact to the velocity of the ball after it has been struck. This measure is affected by the clubhead and ball material.
Coil: The turning of the body during the backswing.
Come Over the Top: A motion beginning the downswing that sends the club outside the ideal plane (swing path) and delivers the clubhead from outside the target line at impact. This is sometimes known as an outside-to-inside swing.
Compression: A measure of the relative hardness of a golf ball ranging from 100 (hardest) to 80 (softest).
Connection: A description of a swing in which all the various body parts work harmoniously to produce a solid, fluid motion. (Many players focus upon connection as a key element in the golf swing).
Conservation of Angular Momentum (COAM): A law of physics that allows the player to produce large amounts of kinetic energy. As the body shiftsits weight and turns towards the target in the forward swing, the mass (arms and club) is pulled away from the center into an extended position by centrifugal force. By temporary resisting that pull as well as the temptation to assist the hit by releasing too early, one maintains the angle formed between the club?s shaft and the left arm and conserves the energy until a more advantageous moment. This has been referred to as a "delayed hit," a "late hit," "connection," "lag loading," "the keystone" or COAM, but when performed correctly may simply be called "good timing."
Croquet Style: A putting stance popularized by Sam Snead in which the player stands aside the ball, facing the hole, holds the club with a widely-split grip, and strikes the ball with a croquet-type stroke. A similar style, in which the player faced the hole with the ball positioned between the feet, was banned by the United States Golf Association.
Cross-Handed: A grip in which the left (or lead) hand is placed below the right hand (in other words, a grip that is the opposite of the traditional grips.
Cupped Wrist: A position in which the left or top hand is hinged outward at the top of the backswing.
Cuppy Lie: A lie when the ball is sitting down slightly, usually in a small depression.
Cut Shot: A shot played with a slightly open clubface and a swing path that travels out to in. The result is a soft fade that produces additional backspin and causes the ball to stop quickly on the green.
Dead Hands: A shot in which the hands remain relatively passive in the hitting area, resulting in a shot that flies a shorter distance than it normally would.
Deep-Faced Driver: A driver with greater-than-standard height on its face.
Decelerate: A decreasing of the clubhead speed in the hitting area.
Delayed Hit: A golf term used to describe the Conservation of Angular Momentum.
Divot: The turf displaced when the club strikes the ball on a descending path. It also refers to the hole left after play.
Double Bogey: A score of two over par on a hole.
Double Eagle: A score of three under par on a hole.
Dormie: The point in match play when a player is up in a match by the same number of holes that remain.
Doubles: When a caddie carries two sets of clubs.
Downswing: The swing forward from the top of the backswing.
Draw: A shot that flies slightly from right to left for right-handed players.
Driving Range: Another term for a practice area. Also known as a golf range, practice range or learning center.
Duck Hook: A shot that flies sharply from right to left for right-handed players. It is usually hit unintentionally, since it is difficult to control.
Dynamic Balance: Transferring the focus of weight appropriately during the golf swing while maintaining body control.
Eagle: A score of two-under-par on a hole.
Early Hit: When a player prematurely releases the cocking of the wrists on the downswing, resulting in a loss of power at impact. This is also known as "casting from the top.
Effective Loft: The actual loft on a club at impact as opposed to the loft built into the club. Effective loft is determined by, among other things, the lie and the position of the hands relative to the ball at impact.
Explosion: A shot played from a sand bunker, usually when the ball has buried or settled down into the sand.
Extension: The width of the swing as measured by the target arm on the backswing and the trail arm on the follow-through.
Fade: A shot that flies slightly from left to right.
Fanning: An exaggerated opening of the clubface as the backswing begins.
Fat Shot: A description of a shot when the clubhead strikes the turf behind the ball, resulting in poor contact and a shot that comes up well short of the target.
Flange: A portion of the sole of a club such as a sand wedge or putter.
Flat Swing: A swing that is more horizontal and less vertical in plane than is typical.
Flier: A shot from the rough or in wet conditions that reduces the amount of backspin on the ball, causing it to fly lower and farther than it might under normal conditions.
Flip Shot: A shot, usually played with a wedge, that involves a wristy swing designed to hit the ball a short distance but with a lot of height.
Floater: A ball struck from the deep grass that comes out slowly and travels a shorter distance because of the heavy cushioning effect of the grass between the ball and the clubface.
Flop Shot: Similar to a flip shot except that it involves a long, slower swing.
Fluffy Lie: A lie in which the ball rests atop the longish grass. This can be a tricky lie because the tendency is to swing the clubhead under the ball, reducing the distance it carries.
Fly: The distance the ball carries (He can fly the ball 280 yards with his driver) or a shot that carries over the intended target.
Follow-through: That part of the swing that occurs after the ball has been struck.
Footwork: The coordinated action of the lower body during the golf swing.
Forward Press: A slight movement of the hands and arms (and occasionally the legs) that initiate the golf swing.
Forward Swing: The downward motion of the hands, arms and club from the top of the backswing to impact. Another terms for downswing.
Fried Egg: The slang term for a buried lie in the sand.
Grand Slam: The Modern (or Professional) Grand Slam describes winning the four professional Major Championships -- the PGA Championship, the Masters and the United States and British Opens -- in a calendar year. The Career Grand Slam describes winning each of these events once in a career.
Golf Range: A facility where people can practice their full swings and, in some cases, their short games.
Grain: The direction which the blades of grass grow, which is of primary importance on the greens (particularly Bermuda grass greens) as this can affect how much and in which direction a putt breaks.
Greenkeeper: An older, outdated term for the course superintendent.
Grip (Equipment): That part of the golf club where the hands are placed.
Grip: The placing and positioning of the hands on the club. The various types include the Vardon or overlapping, the interlocking and the 10-finger or baseball grip. There is also the reverse-overlapping grip, in which the index finger of the left or top hand overlaps the smallest finger of the right or bottom hand. This is primarily used in putting, although some players use this grip when chipping the ball.
Groove (equipment): The horizontal scoring lines on the face of the club that help impart spin on the ball.
Groove: A description of a swing that consistently follows the same path, time after time.
Ground: When referred to in the Rules of Golf, it means the point when the club touches the ground (or water) prior to playing the shot.
Group Lesson: A teaching session in which several pupils work with one or more PGA Professionals. This type of lesson is particularly effective for beginners, especially juniors.
Half Shot: A shot played with an abbreviated swing and reduced swing speed. This shot is often played when trying to keep the ball out of a strong wind.
Heel: The part of the clubhead nearest the hosel.
Heel and Toe: Weighted: A club design where weight is distributed towards the heel and toe of a club, usually an iron, to reduce the effect of mis-hits.
High Side: The side of the hole that a putt breaks from.
Hitter: A player who favors a forceful, aggressive style of swing.
Hooding: The act of placing the hands ahead of the ball, both at address and impact, which tends to reduce the effective loft of the club.
Hook: A shot that curves sharply from right to left for right-handed players.
Hosel: The part of the club connecting the shaft to the clubhead.
Impact: The moment in the swing when the club strikes the ball.
Inside-to-In: A description of the swing path that, all things being equal, will produce the greatest percentage of solid, straight and on-target shots. It refers to a path in which the clubhead travels from inside the target line, to impact, and then back inside the target line.
Inside-to-Out: A swing path in which the clubhead approaches the ball from inside the target line and, after contact, continues to the outside of the target line before turning back to the inside of the target line.
Intended Line of Flight: The direction a player plans for his ball to begin after impact.
Iron Byron: A testing device modeled after Byron Nelson's swing. It is used to test clubs and balls.
Jab: A putting stroke that is short, quick, and, often, erratic.
Kinesiology: The scientific study of man's movement and the movements of implements or equipment that he might use in exercise, sport or other forms of physical activity.
Kinetic Energy: The form of energy associatedwith the speed of an object. Its equation is: KE=1/2mv2(squared); or kinetic energy= ? mass x velocity squared. (It is obvious from the formula that increasing clubhead velocity has more potential for producing distance than increasing the clubhead weight.)
Lag: A shot (usually a pitch, chip or putt) designed to finish short of the target.
Lateral Slide: or Shift: A movement early in the forward swing in which the hips begin to slide to the target and rotate while, at the same time, weight begins to shift from the trail side to the target side. The timing of this motion is crucial to a proper swing.
Lay Off: When the swing plane flattens out at the top of the back swing, it causes the club to point to the side of the target and the face to close.
Learning Center: A complete practice and instruction facility, which may or may not be on the site of a golf course.
Level-Par: A term describing a score of even par.
Lever System: The skeletal system is composed of numerous bones which, in mechanical terms, act as levers. The two primary levers in the golf swing are: 1) the target arm, comprised of the radius and ulna of the lower arm and the humerus in the upper arm, and 2) the club when the target wrist becomes cocked.
Lie: As it relates to the ball, the position of the ball when it has come to rest. (He hit his drive into the rough, but luckily had a good lie). As it relates to the club, it is the angle of the sole of the club relative to the shaft. (He liked the sand wedge but the lie was too flat.)
Lights-Out: A slang term describing an outstanding round or stretch of holes.
Line: The intended path of the ball, usually referred to in the context of putting.
Line of Flight: The actually path of the ball.
Links: The term for a course built on linksland, which is land reclaimed from the ocean. It is not just another term for a golf course.
Lob Shot: A short, high shot, usually played with a wedge, designed to land softly.
Loft: The degree of angle on the clubface, with the least loft on a putter and the most on a sand wedge.
Long Irons: The 1-4 irons.
Looking Up: The act of prematurely lifting your head to follow the flight of the ball, which also raises the swing center and can result in erratic ballstriking.
Loop: The shape of the swing when the backswing and forward swing are in different planes. Loop also refers to a round of golf.
Loosened Grip: Any time a player opens his fingers and loses control of the club. When this happens at the top of the backswing, it is often referred to as "playing the flute."
Mechanics: The mechanics of a golf swing or putting stroke.
Middle or Mid-irons: The 5-7 irons.
Misread: A misread is to incorrectly discern the correct line of a putt.
Mud ball: A golf ball that has soil or other debris stuck to it which can affect its flight. Under normal rules of golf one is only allowed to clean a ball in play when it is on the putting green..
Mulligan: The custom of hitting a second ball -- without penalty -- on a hole, usually the 1st tee.
Nassau: A competition in which points are awarded for winning the front nine, back nine and overall 18.
Off-Green Putting: When a player elects to putt from off the green rather than chip.
Offset: A measure of the distance between the leading edge of the hosel and the leading edge of the clubface.
One-Piece Takeaway: Sometimes called the "modern" takeaway, it describes the beginning of the backswing when the hands, arms and wrists move away from the ball, maintaining the same relationship they had at address.
Open Clubface: When, either at address or during the swing, the heel of the clubhead is leading the toe, causing the clubface to point to the side of the target.
Open Grip: Also referred to as a weak grip, it is when the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the club.
Open Stance: When the left or lead foot is pulled back farther from the target line than the rear or right foot. This stance generally helps promote a left-to-right ball flight.
Open-to-Closed: A description of the movement of the clubface when a player fans it open on the backswing and then closes it at impact.
Outside-to-In: A description of a swing path when the clubhead approaches the ball from outside the target line and then continues to the inside of that line following impact.
Overclub: To pick the wrong club, usually for an approach shot, causing the ball to go over the green.
Pace: The speed of the golf swing (He had a beautiful pace to his swing) or the speed of the greens.
Paddle Grip: A putting grip with a flat surface where the thumbs rest.
Par: The score an accomplished player is expected to make on a hole, either a three, four or five.
Path: The direction the club travels during the swing or the putting stroke. This is best observed from an overhead view.
Pendulum Stroke: In putting, a stroke that moves the clubhead back and forth on a constant line, without deviation.
Pinch Shot: A shot played around the green in which a player strikes the ball with a crisp, clean descending blow.
Pistol Grip: A grip, usually on a putter, that is built up under the left or top hand.
Pitch-and-Run: A shot from around the green, usually with a middle or short iron, where the ball carries in the air for a short distance before running towards the hole. .
Pivot: The rotation of the body around a relatively fixed point, usually the spine.
Plumb-bob: A method many players use to help them determine the amount a putt will break. It involves positioning yourself behind the ball and holding the putter vertically so it covers the ball. In theory, the shaft of the putter will indicate the amount the ball will break. It does not, however, measure the speed of the green, which is an important element is reading a putt.
Plugged Lie: The condition when the ball comes to rest in its own pitch mark, usually in a bunker or soft turf.
Press: To try and hit the ball harder than usualThis also describes an extra effort to play well.
Pre-Shot Routine: The actions a player takes from the time he selects a club until he begins the swing.
Private Lesson: Generally speaking, when a PGA Professional gives a lesson to a single pupil.
Pronation: An inward rotation of the hands towards the body?s centerline when standing in a palms-facing-forward position.
Pulled Hook: A shot that begins to the side of the target line and continues to curve even further away.
Pulled Shot: A relatively straight shot that begins to the side of the target and doesn't curve back.
Pulled Slice: A shot that starts well to the side of the target but curves back to the target.
Punch Shot: A low-flying shot played with an abbreviated backswing and finish. The key to the shot is having the hands slightly ahead of the clubhead at impact, which reduces the effective loft of the club.
Pushed Hook: A shot that begins to the side of the target but curves back to the target.
Pushed Shot: A shot that starts to the side of the target and never curves back.
Pushed Slice: A shot that starts to the side of the target and curves further away.
Radius: The distance between the center of the swing arc (the target or forward shoulder) and the hands on the grip.
Raised Swing Center: Elevating the central area in the body (somewhere between the top of the spine and the center of the neck) around which rotation takes place. What the novice frequently refers to as "looking up" and results in a swing that is too high.
Rap: To hit a putt with a short, firm stroke.
Reading the Green (or Putt): The entire process involved in judging the break and path of a putt.
Recover: To successfully hit a shot from a poor location.
Release: The act of freely returning the clubhead squarely to the ball at impact, producing a powerful shot.
Reverse: Weight Shift: A swing flaw in which the weight moves forward on the backswing instead of to the back leg.
Rhythm: The coordination of movement during the golf swing or putting stroke.
Road Hole: The par-4 17th hole at the Old Course at St. Andrews, one of the most famous and difficult holes in the world.
Round Robin: A tournament format in which players or team play a variety of other teams, the winner being the player or team that accumulates the highest number of points.
Scoring Clubs: The driver, putter and sand wedge.
Scramble: To recover from trouble (Seve Ballesteros could scramble with the best of them) or a popular form of team play in which the team members pick the ball in the best position and everyone plays from that spot.
Semiprivate Lesson: An instruction format where a limited number of pupils work with a Professional.
Separation: When any of the various body parts and/or the club move either faster or slower that the other elements of the swing.
Setup: The process of addressing the ball, so that the club and body are properly aimed and aligned.
Shank: When the ball is struck on the hosel of the club, usually sending it shooting off to the right.
Shape: To curve a shot to fit the situation. (His ability to shape a shot really impressed the older players). The word is also used to describe the flight of the ball.
Short Game: Those shots played on and around the green, including putting, chipping and pitching, and bunker shots.
Short Irons: The 8 and 9 irons and the pitching wedge. The sand wedge is considered a scoring or specialty club.
Shut: A position in the swing when the clubface is closed relative to the target line.
Sky: A high, short shot caused by the clubhead striking the underside of the ball. Also known as a "pop-up."
Slice: A ball that curves from left to right to a greater degree than a fade.
Smothered: Hook: A low, right to left shot that dives quickly to the ground. The cause is an extremely closed clubface.
Sole: When referring to equipment, it is the bottom of a club. When referring to the swing, it is the point when the sole of the club touches the ground at address.
Sole-Weighted: A design, usually for fairway woods, that incorporates additional weight along the sole of the club. This makes it easier to get the ball into the air and is also effective from the rough.
Splash Shot: A shot played from a good lie in the bunker. The club "splashes" through the sand, throwing the ball into the air.
Spoon: A term for a 3-wood that is seldom used today.
Spot: Another term for marking the ball on the green so it might be lifted.
Spot Putting: Using an intermediate target such as a discolored blade of grass or an old ball mark as a means of aiming a putt.
Square: A term frequently used in golf. It can be used to describe a stance (His feet, hips and shoulders were all square to the target line) or the clubface.
Stance: The position of the feet at address. (He played most shots from an open stance).
Steer: An attempt to guide the flight of the ball that usually results in a loss of distance.
Stony: An English golf term dating back to the late 1800s which means, a shot that lands close to the flagstick.
Straight-Faced: The description of a club with very little loft, such as a driving iron, or a driver that lacks the standard bulge and roll.
Stroke Play: Also known as medal play, it is a form of competition based on the cumulative number of strokes taken, either over one round or several.
Strong Grip: A terms used to describe a grip in which the hands are turned counter-clockwise on the grip. It does not connote a stronger-than-normal grip pressure.
Supination: An outward rotation of the hands (thumbs turning out) away from the body's centerline when standing in a palms-facing-the-body position. In the golf swing it is the right-hand rotation motion on the backswing and the left's on the forward swing.
Swaying: An exaggerated lateral movement of the body on either the backswing, forward swing, or both, which results in inconsistent shotmaking.
Sweet Spot: The point on the clubface where, if it is struck with an object, the clubface will not torque or twist to either side
Swing Arc: The entire path the clubhead makes in the course of a swing. It is a combination of the swing's width and length.
Swing Center: A point, usually near the base of the neck and the top of the spine, around which the arms and upper body rotate during the swing.
Swinger: A player whose swing is based on timing and rhythm, as opposed to a "hitter," whose swing is based on sheer power.
Swing Plane: An imaginary surface that describes the path and angle of the club during the swing.
Swingweight Scale: A device for measuring swingweight.
Takeaway: The movement of the club at the start of the backswing.
Target Line: An imaginary (often visualized) line drawn behind and through the ball to the point a player is aiming. If the player is planning to curve the ball, this point is the initial -- not the ultimate -- target.
Tee Box: The area where players tee to start a hole.
Tempo: The speed of the swing.
Texas Wedge: A term describing a shot played with a putter from well off the green. It is a good shot for players who lack confidence in their chipping and pitching, or in extremely windy conditions.
Three-Quarter Shot: A shot played with a shortened backswing and lessened arm speed.
Tier: A rise or level in a green or tee.
Tiger Slam: Winning four consecutive major championships but not in a calendar year.
Timing: The sequence of motions within the golf swing. (Her timing was so good that it made up for her minor swing faults).
Toed Shot: Any shot hit off the toe of the club.
Toe: The far end of the club-head (farthest from the hosel).
Topped Shot: A low, bouncing shot caused by the bottom of the club striking the top half of the ball.
Touch: A player's sense of feel, generally around the greens.
Trajectory: The height and angle the ball travels when struck.
Transition: The change of direction in the swing, from the backswing to the forward swing.
Up and down: The situation where a player holes the ball in two strokes starting from off the green.
Uncock: The release of straightening of the wrists during the downswing.
Upright: A steeper-than-normal swing plane. (His upright swing helped him escape from the rough). Upright also refers to a club's lie in which the shaft is placed at a steeper-than-standard angle.
Vardon grip: A common grip style in which (for right-handed players) the right pinkie finger rests on top of the left index finger.
Vaulting dormie: A possible occurrence in match play when a player converts a lead into a victory without passing through dormie, a guaranteed minimum of a tie at the end .
Visualization: A mental image of a swing or shot or even an entire round.
Waggle: A motion or several motions designed to keep a player relaxed at address and help establish a smooth pace in the takeaway and swing.
Weak Grip: A term describing a grip where the hands are turned to the left for a right-handed player.
Whiff: A complete miss. Also known as an "air ball."
Wire-to-wire: Leading a tournament after every round (may or may not include ties)
Worm burner: A shot that is hit remarkably low and sometimes hard.
Yips: A condition, generally believed to be psychological, which causes a player to lose control of his hands and club. In Great Britain, the condition is referred to as the "Twitchies." This generally occurs when putting or in the short game, but it can also afflict people when hitting a tee shot.